©2019 by EQUALS

Part Two of the report comprises independently authored chapters by members of the EQUALS Research
Group. It brings together theoretical perspectives and research data on themes to broaden our understanding
of pathways to gender equality in the digital age, outlining potential agendas for the Partnership.

These themes fall into three broad categories: People, Digital Skills, and Pathways.

Most approaches to women and ICT do not consider the contexts of different types of people. But technology does not exist in a vacuum; it is embedded in society. Technology has social impact, functions in social contexts and is shaped by social factors. The People section examines how technology impacts society through inclusion or exclusion of people in various groups — on the basis of gender (in all its varieties), age, disability, and geographical location. The papers in this section cover a range of factors: gender variance in relation to technology; North vs. South differences in the gender digital gap; the participation and use of technology by female children, youth and women with disabilities; and the potential for women’s empowerment in rural areas through access to ICTs.

CHAPTER 2. TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING THE DIGITAL GENDER GAP IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH

This chapter highlight the significant demand-side challenges to achieving the SDG goals related to ICTs, including cost of devices and services, low education and associated income levels, digital literacy gaps, and limited availability of local and relevant content.

CHAPTER 4. ACCESSIBILITY, INTERSECTIONALITY, AND UNIVERSAL DESIGN: HOW OVERLAPPING FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION LIMIT ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN WITH DISABILITIES

This chapter examines the relationship between the gender digital gap and other forms of social disadvantage and discrimination, such as disabilities.

CHAPTER 6. THE ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN CLOSING STEM EDUCATION GAPS

This chapter reviews lessons learnt from various countries’ experiences and provide key recommendations for educational institutions to increase female student enrolment in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education.

CHAPTER 8. SKILLS DEVELOPMENT AND YOUNG WOMEN’S WORK IN THE CALL CENTRE INDUSTRY IN SOUTH AFRICA

This chapter presents findings from qualitative focus group discussions and individual interviews exploring skills development for young women working as agents in call centres in Cape Town and Johannesburg.

CHAPTER 10. INVESTIGATING EMPOWERING NARRATIVES AROUND WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY

This chapter examines the gendered ways in which women’s engagement with technology is portrayed and investigates the view (known as technological determinism) that technology is automatically bringing about progress and benefits for women.

CHAPTER 12. “HELLO SIRI, HOW DOES THE PATRIARCHY INFLUENCE YOU?”
— UNDERSTANDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND GENDER INEQUALITY

This chapter examines the gendered implications of artificial intelligence (AI), especially in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia. It identifies the ways in which AI shapes gender relationships — and vice versa — by exploring examples of AI applications from various disciplinary fields.

CHAPTER 1. GENDER VARIANCE AND THE GENDER DIGITAL DIVIDE

This chapter reviews the inter-relationships between gender and sexual minorities and ICTs, examining the opportunities for access and use, and assessing the pitfalls involved. It provides suggestions for further research and programming to promote gender and sexual equality in ICT.

CHAPTER 3. TECHNOLOGIES AND YOUTH: KEY DIMENSIONS FOR INVESTIGATING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTERNET ACCESS AND USE

This chapter investigates the activities of young people online in Brazil and discusses their views on privacy and cyber violence as well as how they manage their information online.

CHAPTER 5. ICT IN A CHANGING CLIMATE: A PATH TO GENDER-TRANSFORMATIVE FOOD SECURITY

This chapter reviews women’s access to and use of climate and agriculture information; it provides examples of successful strategies for reaching women, and suggestions for further research and programming to promote gender equality.

CHAPTER 7. THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN THE DIGITAL ERA: THE ROLE OF SKILLS

This chapter examines whether women are equipped with the skills needed to navigate the digital economy. It analyses data from 31 countries to compare the returns to skills for men and women in terms of wages, and how these returns vary between digital-intensive and other industries.

CHAPTER 9. A GENDER PERSPECTIVE ON SECURITY AND PRIVACY IN THE DIGITAL AGE

This chapter explores the fundamental notions of digital security and privacy from a gender perspective. It details how the lack of knowledge of online security and privacy can have a deeply negative effect on technology users, especially women.

CHAPTER 11. A GENDER PERSPECTIVE ON TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND WEALTH CREATION

This chapter examines the current patent shortage among women, and explores how social innovation and support from NGOs and global development organisations can work to make technology transfer more gender inclusive.